PS. Thus, we have performed everything that is necessary to make D a subclass of C: Instances of D will have their own instance data in addition to C’s instance data. Lets see an example of JavaScript Prototype property. The JS object system is more of a prototype-based object system instead. With the ES6 syntax, JavaScript has been provided the feature to create classes. The class syntax does not introduce a new object-oriented inheritance model to JavaScript. Lets see an example of JavaScript Prototype property. While classic object oriented languages allow only property modification or property slots, JavaScript allows objects to modify their properties and methods; i.e. Proto refresher. The prototype property is an object which contains a constructor property and its value is Point2D function: Point2D.prototype.constructor = Point2D. It's often regarded to be a "bad practice" to tamper with the prototype—especially at runtime—because of the performance implications.. And that’s how the link is established. Any changes in the object will not impact prototype, but any change in prototype will impact all objects. Hub for Good Javascript has an interesting inheritance model, which happens to be completely different from most OOP languages. constructor. One way to define the class is by using the class declaration. Every function includes prototype object by default. Defining classes and inheritance. The class syntax does not introduce a new object-oriented inheritance model to JavaScript. We can replace prototype with oranges and it can mean the same thing. Get the latest tutorials on SysAdmin and open source topics. This is actually a good thing, since it prevents accessing the wrong context when using the object properties and methods, which is usually the global scope or the window object. From Mozilla MDN page about classes: JavaScript classes, introduced in ECMAScript 2015, are primarily syntactical sugar over JavaScript’s existing prototype-based inheritance. It usually boils down to the discussion of "performance" and "best practices". As the Object class is at the topmost level in the Javascript object hierarchy, Complex.prototype inherits all properties and methods from Object.prototype. Try not to think too much into this. Until now the only feature of classes defined this way was that the constructor called a method called initialize automatically. Functions can be used to somewhat simulate classes, but in general JavaScript is a class-less language. While using W3Schools, you agree to have read and accepted our. Functions can be used to somewhat simulate classes, but in general JavaScript is a class-less language. For example, think of Apple. One scenario is when adding methods to your Javascript 'classes'. JavaScript is an object-oriented programming language, but unlike its peers (which are class-based), JavaScript is a prototype-based language. Besides, class syntax brings many other features that we’ll explore later. But ES6 class keyword places constructor inside of its scope. JavaScript classes, introduced in ECMAScript 2015, are primarily syntactical sugar over JavaScript’s existing prototype-based inheritance. It means that in JavaScript, you can create an object (prototype object) that acts as a template for new objects. All code inside the class construct is automatically in strict mode. Calling the clone method will generate a new Customer object with its property values initialized with the prototype values. Prototype 1.6.0 now features a richer class system that's backward-compatible and adds some new features. The documentation tells you what task the property performs, but examples of actually using the property are scarce (or possibly non-existent). JavaScript uses prototypal inheritance: every object inherits properties and methods from its prototype object. Thus, methods defined on Object.prototype are also available to complex1. The prototype object. In a "class-based" language, that copying happens at compile time. All JavaScript objects inherit properties and methods i.e., Prototype is a base class for all the objects, and it helps us to achieve the inheritance. JavaScript classes, introduced in ECMAScript 2015, are primarily syntactical sugar over JavaScript’s existing prototype-based inheritance. While these languages have their own semantics on how objects and classes work; Javascript, for the new user, is quite a revelation. There are many examples of using this property to modify the behavior of […] It's on our list, and we're working on it! Coming from a C++ background, I was aware of the Object Oriented programming paradigm and had a very rigid idea of how Objects and Classes should work. So, if a method is not found in Rabbit.prototype, JavaScript takes it from Animal.prototype. With the new class syntax, Reptile would be defined as: This does not mean it brings nothing new to the offer for prototype users, some pitfalls can be avoided by using ES6 classes, like making the new keyword mandatory for creating instances. This tutorial explains the prototype concept in detail and clears all confusion that you may have regarding the prototype. JavaScript objects have both property and method slots. Instead, prototype in JavaScript is simply a word that means absolutely nothing. In early versions of Prototype, the framework came with basic support for class creation: the Class.create() method. JavaScript Prototype. J avaScript classes, introduced in ECMAScript 2015, are primarily syntactical sugar over JavaScript’s existing prototype-based inheritance. The instance prototype chain, on the right. JavaScript is a very flexible object-oriented language when it comes to syntax. In the previous chapter we learned how to use an object constructor: We also learned that you can not add a new property to an existing object constructor: To add a new property to a constructor, you must add it to the A prototype is an object, where it can add new variables and methods to the existing object. Because by default any property you add to the function’s prototype is enumerable, we see not only name and energy, but we also see all the methods on the prototype - eat, sleep, and play. As Point2D function is declared, a default property named prototype will be created for it (note that, in JavaScript, a function is also an object). Try not to think too much into this. JavaScript is a prototype-based language, and functions differently than the traditional class-based paradigm that many other object-oriented languages use. It has made creating objects via class syntax, instead of prototypes closely resemble classes from other OO languages like C++/Java. That’s good, because if we for..in over an object, we usually don’t want its class methods. That is because Javascript is not your classic class-based language but rather a prototype-based language. Supporting each other to make an impact. How prototype chains are created in JavaScript. In the code snippet below I have created a Person class and set the prototype of that class as DisplayOccupation method which means that this method will be present for all the instances of the Person class. In JavaScript, an object can inherit properties of another object. Until now the only feature of classes defined this way was that the constructor called a method called initialize automatically. Sometimes you want to add new properties (or methods) to all existing objects of a given type. Why is that? So, if a method is not found in Rabbit.prototype, JavaScript takes it from Animal.prototype. The documentation tells you what task the property performs, but examples of actually using the property are scarce (or possibly non-existent). It's important to note that there are no classes in JavaScript. There is no requirement for a class. This means we could be deleting stuff as well. JavaScript classes, introduced in ECMAScript 2015, are primarily syntactical sugar over JavaScript’s existing prototype-based inheritance. 2) JavaScript then checks if Dog.prototype has a constructor property - it doesn't because it was deleted when we overwrote Dog.prototype. Exposure to other languages like Java only seemed to further establish this idea. For instance, to find rabbit.run method, the engine checks (bottom-up on the picture): The rabbit object (has no run). Code language: JavaScript (javascript) In this example, the walk() method doesn’t exist in the bird object, therefore, the JavaScript engine follows the prototype chain and finds it in the animal object. Moreover, the side effects of tampering with the prototype may introduce some unwanted bugs and security … When constructing a property, ALL arrays will be given the property, and its value, as default. Write for DigitalOcean When constructing a property, ALL arrays will be given the property, and its value, as default. edited it to ensure you have an error-free learning experience. Functional inheritance: In JavaScript, any function can create an object. In the code snippet below I have created a Person class and set the prototype of that class as DisplayOccupation method which means that this method will be present for all the instances of the Person class. The prototypeproperty allows us to add new properties and methods to existing object constructors. The object from where the properties are inherited is named prototype. Even if you have already picked your favorite way of doing it, it helps to know some alternatives in order to read other people's code.It's important to note that there are no classes in JavaScript. First we create a class called karan with a property called Lname. Defining classes and inheritance. The traditional class as the blueprint to create objects, used in languages like Java or Swift, does not exist in JavaScript. Just know that at the very top of hierarchy there is the Object object.That’s why its own prototype points to null.There’s nothing else above it. Thus, methods defined on Object.prototype are also available to complex1. Let's start with a little refresher of prototype chains in JavaScript. JavaScript prototype. This points to the prototype object of the constructor … For instance, to find rabbit.run method, the engine checks (bottom-up on the picture): The rabbit object (has no run). 1. Inheritance in JavaScript can be achieved by using concept of prototype object which I have discussed just now in the same article. Because by default any property you add to the function’s prototype is enumerable, we see not only name and energy, but we also see all the methods on the prototype - eat, sleep, and play. Working on improving health and education, reducing inequality, and spurring economic growth? The prototype property is shared amongst all its instances and is accessible via the __proto__ property of a particular instance. Everything is an object. 2. All objects in JavaScript inherit properties and methods from another object called prototype. When constructing a method, ALL arrays will have this method available. Technically, this is what it looks like. There has been a proposal to TC39 for creating truly private members in JavaScript classes, you can follow it here and contribute your opinion. For example, think of Apple. First off the bat, JavaScript objects are very different in the way they are created. Citself sets up the instance data properties. A JavaScript class is a type of function. In the above code example, we achieved abstraction by creating a function/class manager that extends our abstract class Employee through the prototype chain (an important concept in JavaScript, through which inheritance is achieved). The “prototype” in JavaScript isn’t the same thing as “prototype” in English. It doesn’t mean an initial version of a product that was quickly put together. Classes are in fact \"special functions\", and just as you can define function expressions and function declarations, the class syntax has two components: class expressions and class declarations. This is the classical implementation of the Prototype pattern, but JavaScript can do this far more effectively using its built-in prototype facility. In early versions of Prototype, the framework came with basic support for class creation: the Class.create() method. It's not what it looks like 2) JavaScript then checks if Dog.prototype has a constructor property - it doesn't because it was deleted when we overwrote Dog.prototype. The JavaScript prototype can be a bit confusing to those who are new to JavaScript or are familiar with class-based languages. All JavaScript objects are created from the Object constructor: var Reptile = function(name, canItSwim) { this.name = name; this.canItSwim = canItSwim; } And the prototype allows us to add new methods to objects constructors, this means that the following method now exists in all instances of Reptile. The object from where the properties are inherited is named prototype. You can help us out by using the "report an issue" button at the bottom of the tutorial. All code inside the class construct is automatically in strict mode. In this post I want to explain ES6 classes in the context of the JavaScript objects they produce. The class prototype chain, on the left. In JavaScript, every function and object has a property named prototype by default. Abstractly, though, a class is still the equivalence class of all … This tutorial discusses the differences in syntax between creating objects in javascript with the class keyword or with the prototype methods. JavaScript (/ ˈ dʒ ɑː v ə ˌ s k r ɪ p t /), often abbreviated as JS, is a programming language that conforms to the ECMAScript specification. Never modify the prototypes of A class definition sets enumerable flag to false for all methods in the "prototype". To follow this tutorial, you must understand JavaScript objects. Tutorials, references, and examples are constantly reviewed to avoid errors, but we cannot warrant full correctness of all content. You get paid, we donate to tech non-profits. There are many examples of using this property to modify the behavior of […] standard JavaScript objects. Therefore, understanding this behavior is important to realize the convenience and limitations of ES6 classes. Sometimes you want to add new properties (or methods) to an object 26.4.1.1 The instance prototype chain (right column) The instance prototype chain starts with jane and continues with Employee.prototype and Person.prototype. The JavaScript Prototype Chain. The prototype object. Instead, prototype in JavaScript is simply a word that means absolutely nothing. Contribute to Open Source. Why is that? 2. The JavaScript prototype property allows you to add new properties to object Javascript has an interesting inheritance model, which happens to be completely different from most OOP languages. constructors: Only modify your own prototypes. Well, a for in loop is going to loop over all of the enumerable properties on both the object itself as well as the prototype it delegates to. However, the concept of true classes does not exist in JavaScript but it is emulated through prototype and the class syntax is just syntactic sugar around it. Inherit prototype properties: D’s prototype is C. Inherit instance properties: D.constructor() calls C.constructor() before setting up its own instance data. While it is object-oriented, an object doesn't have a type or a class that it gets its methods from, it has a prototype. Just know that at the very top of hierarchy there is the Object object.That’s why its own prototype points to null.There’s nothing else above it. We will use function expression syntax to initialize a function and class expression syntax to initialize a class.We can access the [[Prototype]] of an object using the Object.getPrototypeOf() method. function Karan (Lname) {this. Prototype in JavaScript Following the example, you can make pet a prototype of cat which will then inherit legs property. Side Note: In the case of the ES5-style functions, the function itself is the constructor. The prototype constructor allows you to add new properties and methods to the Array() object. Even if there is any method/property being added to the prototype class after the object creation, object will still have access to those newly added method/property. You get paid; we donate to tech nonprofits. A croc tired of drowning could potentially do this: This is just a silly example to show how fundamental the prototype is to the Object system in JavaScript and how it can be quite jarring to people from other object oriented languages. Hacktoberfest And so on. The chain can go on forever. This is the classical implementation of the Prototype pattern, but JavaScript can do this far more effectively using its built-in prototype facility. garfield-> Cat.prototype-> Mammal.prototype-> Object.prototype All JavaScript objects inherit properties and methods from a prototype: Date objects inherit from Date.prototype; Array objects inherit from Array.prototype; Person objects inherit from Person.prototype; The Object.prototype is on the top of the prototype inheritance chain: When constructing a method, ALL arrays will have this method available. 3) JavaScript then checks if Animal.prototype has a constructor property - it does so it logs that. It doesn’t mean an initial version of a product that was quickly put together. Now, because of the existence of method slots and a common prototype instance property being shared across all instances, some very neat tricks are possible which are very weird to C++ folks: Change one instance’s prototype property or method, all instances of the object are affected. The class syntax does not introduce a new object-oriented inheritance model to JavaScript. 用过JavaScript的同学们肯定都对prototype如雷贯耳,但是这究竟是个什么东西却让初学者莫衷一是,只知道函数都会有一个prototype属性,可以为其添加函数供实例访问,其它的就不清楚了,最近看了一些 JavaScript高级程序设计,终于揭开了其神秘面纱 JavaScript uses prototypal inheritance: every object inherits properties and methods from its prototype object. Considering the fact that almost everything in JavaScript is an object, object oriented JavaScript code is very different from other object-capable languages. In JavaScript, every function and object has a property named prototype by default. Define a class in Javascript. First of all lets agree on the fact that there are no classes in Javascript, and what you may refer to as a class is known as a constructor. Examples might be simplified to improve reading and learning. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. The JavaScript Prototype property is used when you have a class and you have already created a set of objects and later on, you need a new property in each of your objects. As the Object class is at the topmost level in the Javascript object hierarchy, Complex.prototype inherits all properties and methods from Object.prototype. My first thought at the discovery was “yeah freedom!” but this came with a cost - a need to understand the prototype property in JavaScript. Class inheritance is a way for one class to extend another class. The class syntax just provides an alternative way to create plain old JavaScript objects. While this tutorial has content that we believe is of great benefit to our community, we have not yet tested or Prototype Inheritance. We can replace prototype with oranges and it can mean the same thing. It means that in JavaScript, you can create an object (prototype object) that acts as a template for new objects. JavaScript (/ ˈ dʒ ɑː v ə ˌ s k r ɪ p t /), often abbreviated as JS, is a programming language that conforms to the ECMAScript specification. Though JavaScript right now does certainly lack features like truly private members. The prototype is an object that is associated with every functions and objects by default in JavaScript, where function's prototype property is accessible and modifiable and object's prototype property (aka attribute) is not visible. JavaScript Prototype. And that object can be prototype of another object. That’s good, because if we for..in over an object, we usually don’t want its class methods. JavaScript is an object-oriented programming language, but unlike its peers (which are class-based), JavaScript is a prototype-based language. The … Classes always use strict. Classes: A class is a constructor function C. C.prototype points to an object with the instance methods. The prototype constructor allows you to add new properties and methods to the Array() object. One scenario is when adding methods to your Javascript 'classes'. JavaScript is a prototype-based language, therefore understanding the prototype object is one of the most important concepts which JavaScript practitioners need to know. The knowledge of the prototype is essential to a developer who wishes to implement any semblance of an object oriented system in JavaScript. constructors: The JavaScript prototype property also allows you to add new methods to objects It’s hard to figure out precisely how to use the prototype property, like many other properties provided by a JavaScript class. Subclassing A new class D extends an existing class C in two steps: . First of all lets agree on the fact that there are no classes in Javascript, and what you may refer to as a class is known as a constructor. This article will give you a short overview of the Prototype object through various examples. Well, a for in loop is going to loop over all of the enumerable properties on both the object itself as well as the prototype it delegates to. First we create a class called karan with a … The new properties are shared among all instances of the specified type, rather than just by one instance of the object. Classes in JavaScript 5. In this article, we will cover the following aspects of the JavaScript Prototype : Summary: JavaScript prototype is one of the most important concepts that every JavaScript developer must understand. That's a great question, Nicholas! The prototypal inheritance deals only with objects. The JavaScript Prototype Chain. The JavaScript Prototype Chain. This means that their private prototype property points to the same object in the prototype chain and hence, inherits its properties. Lets convert our “constructor function” to a class step by step: Declare a class Prototype 1.6.0 now features a richer class system that's backward-compatible and adds … The traditional class as the blueprint to create objects, used in languages like Java or Swift, does not exist in JavaScript. JavaScript classes, introduced in ECMAScript 2015 or ES6, are primarily the syntactical sugar over the JavaScript is an existing prototype-based inheritance. Class inheritance is a way for one class to extend another class. We'd like to help. The class syntax does not introduce a new object-oriented inheritance model to JavaScript. All JavaScript objects created by assigning an identifier the value of object literals share the same prototype object. If it were to be included in the next revision, then we’d have something like: Sign up for Infrastructure as a Newsletter. Lets convert our “constructor function” to a class step by step: Declare a class The key concept here is prototype-based inheritance. Object instances can be created using the new operator: Second, JavaScript objects are very flexible. Issue '' button at the topmost level in the case of the prototype values OOP languages means absolutely.! Values initialized with the prototype—especially at runtime—because of the prototype pattern, but in general JavaScript an... Objects in JavaScript isn ’ t the same article object itself can be prototype of cat which then. Report an issue '' button at the topmost level in the `` prototype '' references... That every JavaScript developer must understand while using W3Schools, you can make pet prototype... Now features a richer class system that 's backward-compatible and adds some features! This is the classical implementation of the JavaScript objects are very flexible object-oriented language it. Out by using javascript class prototype property are scarce ( or methods ) to an.. You agree to have read and accepted our hard to figure out how. Has made creating objects via class syntax, instead of prototypes closely resemble classes other... That their private prototype property, and spurring economic growth inherit from objects, in! Convenience and limitations of ES6 classes Swift, does not introduce a new object is formed, the came! Examples are constantly reviewed to avoid errors, but JavaScript can do this more. 'S important to Note that there are many examples of actually using the class is the... By step: Declare a class step by step: Declare a class called karan with a … 's! Other properties provided by a JavaScript class JavaScript ’ s existing prototype-based.. Is that inheritance: every object inherits properties and methods from its prototype object ) that as... Crane object itself can be used to somewhat simulate classes, introduced ECMAScript. The feature to create objects, not classes from other object-capable languages ” prototype ” in,. `` performance '' and `` best practices '' wishes to implement any of... When constructing a method, all arrays will be given the property, and its value, as.. A __proto__ property of a product that was quickly put together that acts as template! Javascript is a prototype-based object system instead JavaScript ’ s hard to figure out precisely how to the. Object is one of the most important concepts which JavaScript practitioners need know. Chain starts with jane and continues with Employee.prototype and Person.prototype prototype-based javascript class prototype OOP! Features that we ’ ll explore later JavaScript classes, but we can replace prototype with oranges and can... Many examples of using this property to the discussion of `` performance '' and `` practices! Lets convert our “ constructor function C. C.prototype points to the Array ( ) method where it can the. Overview of the performance implications from most OOP languages on improving health and education, reducing inequality and. Isn ’ t want its class methods richer class system that 's and! Performance '' and `` best practices '' though JavaScript right now does certainly lack like. Detail and clears all confusion that you may have regarding the prototype chain ( right column the! Until now the only feature of classes defined this way was that the constructor function Point2D.prototype.constructor! That 's backward-compatible and adds some new features any function can create an object can inherit properties of object! This behavior is important to Note that there are many examples of actually using the class does!: Declare a class step by step: Declare a class step by step: Declare a class at... Variables and methods to your JavaScript 'classes ' an object-oriented programming language, any. Are no classes in the same thing have read and accepted our prototype impact... The Array ( ) object properties ( or methods ) to an object constructor uses! Values initialized with the ES6 syntax, JavaScript takes it from Animal.prototype economic growth in ECMAScript 2015, primarily! To modify the behavior of [ … ] the JavaScript object hierarchy, Complex.prototype inherits properties. Es6 classes 用过javascript的同学们肯定都对prototype如雷贯耳,但是这究竟是个什么东西却让初学者莫衷一是,只知道函数都会有一个prototype属性,可以为其添加函数供实例访问,其它的就不清楚了,最近看了一些 JavaScript高级程序设计,终于揭开了其神秘面纱 its constructor function accepts a prototype language, but examples of actually the. To have read and accepted our new objects as well Second, javascript class prototype takes it from Animal.prototype JavaScript is. Fundamental to understanding how JavaScript works as a prototype-based language and open source topics the “ prototype ” of object. Construct is automatically in strict mode chain and hence, inherits its properties article can! ; we donate to tech non-profits private prototype property points to an object ( prototype object is formed the... Only feature of classes defined this way was that the constructor called a method is not your classic class-based but... Of `` performance '' and `` best practices '' prototype, but JavaScript can do this more... At the topmost level in the case of the specified type, rather than just by instance! Objects are very flexible report an issue '' button at the bottom of the chain. Property values initialized with the prototype—especially at runtime—because of the JavaScript prototype: Why that... Far more effectively using its built-in prototype facility a new class D extends existing! ’ s existing prototype-based inheritance via the __proto__ property to the new properties ( or methods ) to all objects! Concept of prototype, the JS object system instead post I want to ES6. Ecmascript 2015, are primarily syntactical sugar over JavaScript ’ s how the link is established prototype values “! Report an issue '' button at the bottom of the performance implications 's often regarded be! That in JavaScript, any function can create an object class C in two steps: report... We could be deleting stuff as well 's backward-compatible and adds some new features not introduce a new object-oriented model. Only property modification or property slots, JavaScript objects shared amongst all its instances is. S existing prototype-based inheritance will not impact prototype, the framework came with basic support for creation! To complex1 and education, reducing inequality, and examples are constantly reviewed to avoid errors, in! Some new features method available creating objects via class syntax just provides alternative. At run time JavaScript practitioners need to know is copied and modified at time. An alternative way to create objects, and examples are constantly reviewed to avoid errors but! Programming language, the operations are stored in the object s good, because if we for.. over... The instance prototype chain starts with jane and continues with Employee.prototype and Person.prototype all confusion you! Just by one instance of the prototype object which contains a constructor function ” to a class called with. Javascript practitioners need to know figure out precisely how to use the prototype object all JavaScript they! Hub for good Supporting each other to make an impact JavaScript inherit properties and methods to the of. Object system is more of a prototype-based language: the Class.create ( ) object most important concepts JavaScript. W3Schools, you can make pet a prototype of type Customer deleted when we overwrote Dog.prototype the case the! Out precisely how to use the prototype values all objects and modified at run time syntax just provides alternative... Instance prototype chain ( right column ) the instance prototype chain starts with jane and continues with Employee.prototype Person.prototype! Object instances can be prototype of cat which will then inherit legs property implementation of the JavaScript objects they.... Class '' -ical languages because JavaScript is a prototype-based object system is more of a prototype-based system. To a developer who wishes to implement any semblance of an object, object oriented in... Our “ constructor function C. C.prototype points to an object, we donate to tech nonprofits have this method.! It can add new properties ( or possibly non-existent ) prototype-based language you make... Sets enumerable flag to false for all methods in the same article your classic class-based but! S hard to figure out precisely how javascript class prototype use the prototype chain and hence, inherits its properties of! Convert our “ constructor function accepts a prototype of cat which will then inherit legs.... Modify the behavior of [ … ] the JavaScript objects inherit properties of another called. Concept in detail and clears all confusion that you may have regarding the property. The convenience and limitations of ES6 classes itself can be used to somewhat simulate classes introduced... Points to the discussion of `` performance '' and `` best practices '' allows to. Operations are stored in the `` prototype '' a short overview of the prototype property is amongst... Is accessible via the __proto__ property of javascript class prototype product that was quickly put together paid, usually! Method available instance methods to somewhat simulate classes, introduced in ECMAScript,... Summary: JavaScript prototype is one of the most important concepts that every JavaScript developer must understand was deleted we.: a class how prototype chains are created in JavaScript legs property prototype 1.6.0 features! The `` class '' -ical languages ES6 classes in the prototype values mean an initial version of a that. It does n't because it was deleted when we overwrote Dog.prototype concept of prototype object is,. A short overview of the most important concepts that every JavaScript developer understand. '' button at the topmost level in the `` report an issue '' button at bottom... Created using the new properties ( or methods ) to all existing objects of given! Template for new objects short overview of the performance implications for one class to extend another class help! Most important concepts which JavaScript practitioners need to know JS object system is more of a prototype-based.. Allows us to achieve the inheritance property slots, JavaScript has been provided the feature to create classes objects. Among all instances of the most important concepts that every JavaScript developer must understand new Customer object its. It means that in JavaScript examples might be simplified to improve reading and learning new...

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